Atomistic learning in the electronically grand-canonical ensemble

Image credit: Xi Chen.


A strategy is presented for the machine-learning emulation of electronic structure calculations carried out in the electronically grand-canonical ensemble. The approach relies upon a dual-learning scheme, where both the system charge and the system energy are predicted for each image. The scheme is shown to be capable of emulating basic electrochemical reactions at a range of potentials, and coupling it with a bootstrap-ensemble approach gives reasonable estimates of the prediction uncertainty. The method is also demonstrated to accelerate saddle-point searches, and to extrapolate to systems with one to five water layers. We anticipate that this method will allow for larger length- and time-scale simulations necessary for electrochemical simulations.

npj Computational Materials